Legislative & Regulatory Developments

The Act establishes the world’s first comprehensive regulatory framework for AI, and is expected to shape the future of AI regulation and governance both within and beyond the EU.

By Elisabetta Righini, Hanno F. Kaiser, Tim Wybitul, Fiona M. Maclean, and Michael H. Rubin

After three years of legislative debate, the Council of the European Union cast its final vote on the European Union (EU) Artificial Intelligence (AI) Act on 21 May 2024. Once published in

Businesses need to be proactive in updating their compliance measures to meet the ever-evolving set of privacy laws and regulatory expectations in 2024 and beyond.

By Michael H. Rubin, Robert W. Brown, Max G. Mazzelli, Jennifer Howes, and Sarah Zahedi

Following the notable uptick in state-level privacy laws in 2023, a wave of new comprehensive state privacy laws and state laws seeking to regulate health privacy, youth privacy, online platforms, and data brokers are set to take effect this year. While a draft federal comprehensive privacy law — the American Privacy Rights Act — aimed at harmonizing this patchwork of state laws was introduced last month, until such a law actually passes, the quickly evolving state regulatory landscape will continue to set the standards for how most businesses must handle personal information in the US.

The PDPL has broad extraterritorial scope and substantial penalties for non-compliance, with full enforcement expected to start in September.

By Brian A. Meenagh and Lucy Tucker

The Personal Data Protection Law (PDPL) is the first comprehensive data protection law in Saudi Arabia. The Saudi Data and Artificial Intelligence Authority (SDAIA) is expected to start full enforcement of the PDPL from 14 September 2024, after the current compliance transition period ends. SDAIA emphasised that it expects entities to take measures to achieve compliance with the PDPL by the September deadline.  

The proposed amendments are expansive and would significantly affect how companies comply with the Children’s Online Privacy Protection Act.

By Jennifer C. Archie, Marissa R. Boynton, Michael H. Rubin, Gabriela Aroca Montaner, Samantha M. Laufer, and Molly Whitman

Key Points:

  • The proposed amendments, which clarify or expand many of the COPPA Rule’s existing provisions, would be the first updates to the Rule in over a decade and would formalize recent FTC guidance and enforcement in

The amended rules follow the Biden Administration’s “whole of government” approach to maximizing notifications to executive agencies of cybersecurity events.

By Jennifer C. Archie, Matthew A. Brill, Gabriela Aroca Montaner, Chad Kenney, and Molly Whitman

On December 21, 2023, a divided Federal Communications Commission (FCC or the Commission) released a Report and Order updating its data breach reporting rules for certain telecommunications providers. The updated rules require that providers of telecommunications services, interconnected Voice over Internet

Companies subject to India’s new data protection law should assess practical implications.

By Gail Crawford, Fiona Maclean, Danielle van der Merwe, Kate Burrell, Bianca H. Lee, Alex Park, Irina Vasile, and Amy Smyth

The Indian parliament enacted India’s first comprehensive data protection law on 11 August 2023, namely the Digital Personal Data Protection Act 2023 (the DPDPA). The DPDPA will replace India’s existing patchwork of data protection rules[i] and is expected to trigger significant changes in how companies subject to Indian data protection laws process personal data. However, the law is not yet operational; no effective date has been established and there is no official timeline for the overall implementation. Stakeholders expect the law to come into force in a phased manner in the next six to 12 months, after:

  1. an independent agency responsible for enforcing the DPDPA — the Data Protection Board of India (the Data Protection Board) — is established; and
  2. the Indian government has framed the subordinate rules (which are expected to provide interpretative guidance on procedural steps and enforcement methodology).

The DPDPA is “umbrella” legislation, as it sets out only a high-level framework for India’s new data protection regime, with supplementary rules expected in due course. Though the new law is not yet operational, companies subject to the new law are advised to begin assessing potential practical implications at an early stage.

The final Implementing Regulations are generally business-friendly and bring the law closer to the EU GDPR.

By Brian A. Meenagh and Lucy Tucker

The Saudi Data & AI Authority (SDAIA) recently issued the final Implementing and Transfer Regulations for the upcoming Personal Data Protection Law (PDPL), the first comprehensive data protection law in Saudi Arabia. This follows the publication of consultation drafts of the Implementing and Transfer Regulations in April 2023 (the Consultation Draft). The PDPL was issued under Royal

The new general data privacy laws in Oregon and Delaware expand on existing requirements under other state privacy laws.*

By Robert Blamires, Clayton Northouse, Austin L. Anderson, and Jennifer Howes

Key Takeaways:

  • On July 20, 2023, Oregon’s governor signed the Oregon Consumer Privacy Act into law. The law will take effect on July 1, 2024.
  • On September 11, 2023, Delaware’s governor signed the Delaware Personal Data Privacy Act into law. The law will take effect on January 1, 2025.
  • The Oregon law expands individuals’ right of access to their data to now include a list of names of the third parties to which a business has disclosed an individual’s personal data.[i]
  • Unlike most of the other new state general data privacy laws (and several other existing data privacy regimes), both laws apply to nonprofit entities, with some limited exceptions. Oregon gives nonprofit entities a one-year grace period beyond the law’s effective date.
  • Delaware requires covered businesses to obtain consent of individuals between the ages of 13 and 18 prior to processing their personal data for purposes of selling, targeted advertising, or certain profiling activities.

The new framework provides an additional route for personal data transfers from the EEA to the US.

By Robert Blamires, Gail E. Crawford, James Lloyd, Clayton Northouse, Alice Brunning, Alexander Ford-Cox, and Jennifer Howes

On 10 July 2023, the European Commission (EC) took the final step to enable businesses to start relying on the new EU-US Data Privacy Framework (DPF) for transfers of data from the European Economic Area (EEA) to the US. The EC adopted an adequacy decision following the fulfilment by the US of its implementation commitments under the DPF. The adequacy decision enables organisations to transfer personal data from the EEA to organisations in the US that have self-certified under the DPF with immediate effect. As of 10 July 2023, organisations that were certified under the EU-US Privacy Shield (Privacy Shield) are now certified under the DPF and can begin receiving data from the EEA via the DPF.

Washington State’s landmark privacy law has inspired other states to pass similar laws with stringent requirements on a broad range of companies and processing activities.

By Heather B. Deixler, Clayton Northouse, Austin L. Anderson, Kiara E. Vaughn, and Kathryn Parsons-Reponte

Key Takeaways:

  • On April 27, 2023, Washington State enacted the My Health My Data law (My Health My Data Act), a health privacy law that broadly applies to personal information that is or can be linked to a consumer and identifies the consumer’s physical or mental health status.
  • On June 16, 2023, Nevada passed a similar law by enacting Senate Bill 370 (Nevada Health Privacy Law).
  • Both laws apply to consumer health information not covered under health data privacy laws like the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996, as amended (HIPAA). However, while Nevada’s law shares similar terminology as Washington State’s law, it is narrower in scope and unlike the Washington State law, it does not include a private cause of action.
  • The requirements under both laws include publishing a consumer health data privacy policy, obtaining consent for the collection and sharing of consumers’ health data with prescriptive requirements, and establishing consumer health data rights.
  • While both laws will be enforced by the states Attorney General, the Washington State law also provides a private right of action, allowing individuals to directly bring an enforcement action against a business.
  • With certain exceptions (see small businesses and the geolocation restriction under My Health My Data), both laws will go into effect on March 31, 2024.

Washington State and Nevada have now passed health data privacy laws that impose obligations relating to the collection, processing, and sharing of “consumer health data.” Both laws (collectively, State Health Data Privacy Laws) go into effect on March 31, 2024, with some exceptions. The Washington State law’s ban on geofencing went into effect on July 23, 2023, and the law also includes a slight delay for small businesses, which are not subject to most of the law’s requirements until June 30, 2024.